Ad fraud can take many forms but is essentially a scam to bring advertisers to pay for worthless opportunities. Ad stacking, domain spoofing and click fraud are the most common types of ad fraud.
Inserting ads into an app, web page, etc., without the consent of the publisher or operator of that resource.
Placing multiple ads on top of each other in a single placement, with only the top ad being viewable. The advertiser pays for impressions even if the end user is not seeing an ad.
A technique where one party will buy cheap inventory and resell it at a higher price. It becomes a fraudulent practice if the buyer is unaware of the source of the inventory.
A page ad unit enabled to request a new rendered asset more than once and at periodic intervals.
A list of domains that a brand is not willing to have its advertising appear on.
Keeping ads off web pages that are unsafe. If the page is identified as unsafe, then the ad will not serve.
Short for robot; refers to a software program that carries out automated tasks on the Internet. There are good bots and bad bots. They may intentionally or unintentionally view ads, watch videos, click on ads, etc.
Nonhuman traffic designed to mimic users and inflate audience numbers.
A group of computers taken over by software.
Data Management Platform (DMP)
A centralized data management platform allows you to create target audiences based on a combination of in-depth first and third party audience data.
Traffic originating from datacenters, rather than residential or corporate networks. Typically, no end user is present and therefore invalid. However proxy servers or other technologies may result in traffic appearing to originate from datacenters while still being delivered to human users.
Demand Side Platform (DSP)
DSPs allow advertisers to buy impressions across a range of publisher sites, but targeted to specific users based on information including location and previous browsing behavior.
HTML or an ad request that attempts to represent a site, device, etc., other than the actual placement, tricking advertisers and ad exchanges into thinking the inventory is legitimate.
Fake news is any website or web page that is actively creating and/or distributing deliberately inaccurate content as news.
General Invalid Traffic (GIVT)
Traffic that comes from known, nonhuman sources on publicly available IP lists. It can be identified through routine means of filtration. Key examples include datacenter traffic; bots and spiders or other crawlers masquerading as legitimate users; non-browser user-agent headers; hidden, stacked, covered, or otherwise unviewable ads; pre-fetch or browser pre-rendering traffic; and invalid proxy traffic.
A user’s device (browser, phone, app) is modified to request HTML or make ad requests that are not under the control of a user and made without the user’s consent.
Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB)
A global organization that develops industry standards, conducts research, and provides legal support for the online advertising industry. https://www.iab.com/
Invalid Traffic (IVT)
Also referred to as Nonhuman Traffic (NHT) or Suspicious Activity Detection (SAD), it is online traffic generated from machines or other bot activity that interacts with digital ads.
A list of words a brand wishes to avoid their advertising appearing adjacent to.
Media Rating Council (MRC)
A U.S.-based industry organization that aims to secure valid, reliable, and effective measurement services for the media industry through an audit and accreditation system. When MRC accredited, a verification provider’s measurement services meet the established criteria. http://mediaratingcouncil.org/
Occurring before a purchase takes place. A brand or agency may want to know the likelihood that inventory will meet certain criteria before bidding on it – that is, pre-bid.
Sophisticated Invalid Traffic (SIVT)
Nonhuman traffic that is more difficult to detect, and requires advanced analytics, multipoint corroboration/coordination, or significant human intervention to analyze and identify. Key examples include hijacked devices, hijacked tags, adware, malware, incentivized browsing, misappropriated content (if applicable), falsified viewable impression decisions, and cookie stuffing.
Supply-Side Platform (SSP)
Supply-side platforms allow publishers to connect their inventory to DSPs, ad exchanges and networks to sell their impressions in real-time. SSPs can be connected to multiple buying-sources.
A 1x1 pixel-sized transparent image that provides information about an ad's placement. In many cases, a tracking pixel is used to notify an ad tracking system that an ad has been served (or not served, in some cases) or that a specific web page has been accessed.
Trustworthy Accountability Group (TAG)
A cross-industry accountability program that works to create transparency in business relationships and transactions in the digital ad industry, while continuing to enable innovation. https://www.tagtoday.net/
Viewability is an online advertising metric that measures the number of impressions viewed by users. An impression does not necessarily count as a viewed impression.
A list of pre-approved domains that a brand finds acceptable for its advertising to appear on, regardless of any brand safety settings that may already be in place.
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